First aid

First aid for dislocations

First aid for dislocations helps limit the list of possible complications in the future. However, not all patients understand the difference between the classic dislocation and other similar lesions such as fractures and deformities of the joint bag.

Dislocation in professional terminology is called the displacement of the bone at the point of its attachment to the joint. The result of the deviation is represented by an unnatural form of the joint with subsequent partial or complete loss of functionality of the limb or other part of the body.

Despite the stereotype that the injuries presented are accompanied exclusively by bone displacement, especially serious consequences affect the integrity of blood vessels and even nerves. Against this background, knowledge of how to provide first aid and subsequent medical attention can preserve the patient's natural mobility.

Reasons for destabilization

In order for assistance to have an almost instantaneous effect, it is extremely important to understand the primary source of the lesion.

In short, a joint is a bone connection that responds to limb mobility. It is formed by the articular ends of both bones, which are covered with a cartilaginous layer. Cartilage is designed to soften and simultaneously absorb friction in any movement. If the pathology concerns the knee joints, then the presence of an additional cartilage pad, which is called the meniscus, adds to the complexity.

All articular elements of the bone structure are hidden in the so-called articular bag, inside which contains a special fluid. In addition to the joint, ligaments are attached, which are designed to fix it securely. The whole mechanism is a fairly strong natural design, but in a number of circumstances even it fails.

As with bruises, often the cause of the destabilization of articular activity is various mechanical injuries, external pressure or classic injuries sustained during physical activity.

But if during fractures it is possible to pay attention to the damage immediately due to a number of specific disturbing signs, then with a dislocation things are more complicated. This is explained by the fact that in clinical practice there are a number of diseases that contribute to the onset of such a condition. Ailments undermine health methodically and slowly, which is why it is not always possible to recognize something wrong immediately, as with sprains.

Among uniaxial diseases that provoke such a serious deviation from the physiological norm, there are:

  • dysplasia;
  • arthritis;
  • tuberculosis;
  • oncological neoplasms of a benign or malignant nature;
  • osteomyelitis.

All of the above applies to the camp of acquired wounds, when medical care is provided on the spot, according to the circumstances. But sometimes dislocations are inborn format. This occurs with abnormal fetal development. After birth, the baby is immediately diagnosed with dysplasia. Most often in children

the hip or knee area falls under the scope of the disease.

Special classification

The sequence of diagnosis of deviation requires the assignment of a dislocation a certain status according to several classifications. All such injuries will be sorted according to:

  • origin
  • degree of bias;
  • the condition of the skin;
  • limitation period.

First aid for newborns who have become a victim of intrauterine abnormalities does not have a place to be. Instead, help consists in long-term therapy, which in the early stages has a beneficial effect in most situations.

Also, emergency medical care will be useless if treatment occurred due to a pathological displacement, which is caused by a chronic ailment. It is most effective to use a summary of pre-medical rules for cases of traumatic injury to the leg or other part of the body.

Orthopedics has its own classification according to the degree of displacement of the bone structure:

  • full;
  • incomplete.

The second version is also called subluxation, since it does not include the divergence of the ends of the joints. Some area of ​​contact still remains. At the full stage, the articular ends of the arm diverge completely completely.

A quick inspection of the problem area allows you to evaluate the skin. If signs of destabilization include a violation of the integrity of the tissues, then this indicates an open type of dislocation. With a closed analog, the top layer remains unharmed.

But do not assume that the second subtype of injury is safer. In fact, it poses a serious threat, as it sometimes covers ruptures of blood vessels. And with bleeding without an open wound surface, the average person usually can’t cope on his own.

The limitation period also affects the severity of the disease, so it was put into a separate classification. Fresh injuries cover a time interval of up to three days. Stale - from three days to two weeks. Old - terms above the specified. The latter option is especially characteristic of lesions of the shoulder joint.

But, regardless of what degree was assigned to the defeat, it must be certified according to the last special sorting, which covers the division into the following groups:

  • paralytic;
  • complicated;
  • habitual;
  • irreparable.

The first item covers muscle paralysis, outweighing the strength of antagonistic muscles.

A correctly diagnosed complicated option helps in the further preparation of therapy, as it allows you to identify complications such as nerve damage and disorders of the main blood vessels. In the most dangerous course of events, symptoms indicate intraarticular or periarticular fractures.

As for the shoulder, he most often has to deal with the familiar class. Its peculiarity lies in the periodically recurring dislocation at the same point. This is often caused by anatomical changes due to a number of pathologies, as well as muscle weakness or problems with ligaments.

An irreducible analogue covers chronic injuries that are almost always accompanied by tissue penetration between the articular surfaces of the bone ends.

How to identify characteristic symptoms?

To understand the signs of a possible dislocation, people use tables, physiological diagrams, and even a thematic presentation helps them. The latter may include information about related damage that occurs when there is burns, frostbite.

Despite the fact that all types of dislocations have their own characteristics, they can still be combined into a common list. With such injuries, a person complains of:

  • sharp pain with increasing intensity when trying to make a movement;
  • redness of the skin;
  • swelling;
  • local temperature, which means an increase in temperature in the affected area;
  • articular deformity, covering a change not only in shape, but also in size;
  • a change in the length of the affected limb, which is more suitable for an ankle injury;
  • articular end, which is felt in the "wrong place".

Occasionally, such problems of the foot or hands are additionally accompanied by a general increase in temperature and chills. There are frequent cases of bruising. And with compression of the nerve endings, the victim complains of a partial or complete loss of sensitivity.

Differences between fracture and dislocation

In order to correctly use measures to alleviate the condition of the patient, you will first need to determine whether a dislocation or a fracture has occurred with the victim. Usually, the task presented is beyond the reach of a person who does not have an appropriate education. The final verdict will be able to be rendered only after the victim undergoes an X-ray examination. A black and white photograph will reveal a possible fracture of the bone structure.

But even without radiography, there are primitive methods that make it more likely to identify the exact format of the lesion. A significant difference in fracture is in the following aspects:

  1. The presence of bruising and edema strictly over the damaged part with subsequent spread to the surrounding tissue much later. A dislocation forms a bruise with swelling over the problematic joint, followed by "creeping" into the surrounding skin.
  2. The palpation of bone fragments is characteristic of a classic fracture with displacement. With a dislocation, only torn articular surfaces can be felt.
  3. Fracture involves intense pain exclusively in the area of ​​destruction of bone integrity. With a dislocation, the pain increases when trying to probe the damaged area.

Separately, you need to pay attention to the length of the limb. With a dislocation, only this value changes, while a fracture is characterized by a change not only in length, but also in shape.

The basics of first aid

Immediately after the detection of alarming symptoms, you should call the ambulance team, or with relatively normal health, go on your own to the stump at the hospital.

First aid rules dictate the mandatory follow-up of the protocol. First, the patient is seated or stacked to give the injured part a comfortable position. If there have been violations of the integrity of the skin, an open wound surface will need to be treated with an antiseptic solution and a dressing with a sterile bandage should be applied over it.

But giving painkillers or even intramuscularly injecting an analgesic without first consulting a doctor is strictly prohibited. Such an initiative can seriously smear the overall clinical picture.

Next, you will need to immobilize the problem area with a bandage from an elastic bandage or even a tire. Material for it can be obtained almost everywhere, using as a basis even just boards or surrounding branches.

Before you begin to wind the tire to a damaged limb, you must first cover it with a cloth. It will be necessary to ensure that the edges of the bandage do not affect the soft tissues or nerves.

Regardless of where exactly the damage occurred, you cannot try to correct the dislocation yourself. Such a serious event should be carried out only by an experienced traumatologist.

To reduce puffiness, it is recommended to apply ice or something cold, previously wrapped in a towel. Leave a chill is allowed no more than 20 minutes. Then you need to maintain an interval of a couple of minutes before applying the ice again. This will protect the victim from frostbite, which blocks normal blood flow.

If you ignore all the signs, even a relatively simple dislocation, you can earn a number of complications. Some of them are irreversible processes. Among the most common side effects of ignoring pathology, partial or even complete rupture of the joint capsule is noted.

No less often, the victims simultaneously reveal a violation of the integrity of large vessels, nerves, and regional fractures. With shoulder injuries, traumatic plexitis is a very common occurrence. If you do not set everything back in time, you can even reach the gangrene. And the most severe degree of femoral dislocation is called tissue necrosis.

In order not to start the deviation to such dire consequences, immediately after the detection of dangerous signs, consult a traumatologist orthopedist.

Watch the video: First Aid for Broken Bones (February 2020).