Cystoscopy is an examination of the bladder with endoscopic devices. This procedure is carried out by women and men, small children. For each group of patients, diagnostics is carried out in different ways; for men, this process takes more time and requires special preparation. During the examination, the doctor receives complete information about the condition and functioning of the urinary system, selects the tactics of treatment. To find out what cystoscopy is in men and how it is carried out, it is better to get rid of unnecessary fears and to properly prepare.
The essence of viewing cystoscopy
Cystoscopy refers to the endoscopic methods of diagnosis and treatment. This means that during the procedure a tube with an optical system and illumination is inserted into the organ cavity. This inspection technique allows you to examine in detail the internal surface of the organs, the mucous membrane, to detect the smallest changes. Previously, this required a band operation, today this process takes no more than half an hour and does not require any cuts. Cystoscopy can be examination or treatment. The first one is intended only for diagnostics, and during medical treatment, microsurgical instruments are inserted through the tube and operations are performed.
An observation cystoscopy for men helps to examine in detail the condition of the bladder, to detect the smallest changes in the organ or mucosa. In some cases, such a diagnosis is the only way to properly diagnose. For example, ultrasound or x-rays do not show small ulcers, inflammations and infections. During the examination by the endoscope, the doctor can assess the color of the tissues, see any neoplasms even at the first stage of development. A viewing cystoscopy is performed using a special tool - a cystoscope. It consists of a rigid or flexible tube that is inserted through the urethra to the cavity of the bladder. At the end of the tube there is a point of illumination.
Older specimens are intended for direct examination when the doctor examines the organs through the optical system of the device. New cystoscope equipped with a camera, the image from which is transmitted to the monitor. The new generation of cystoscope provides more information and reduces the likelihood of a misdiagnosis. For children, men and women use different tube lengths. The male is equipped with a flexible, thin and long trocar, it is associated with the anatomy of the male urethra, it is longer and narrower than that of women. Accordingly, the male cystoscopy process is transferred a little more difficult.
Indications and contraindications to the procedure
Endoscopic examination is prescribed for accurate diagnosis. In addition, the urologist sends the patient for ultrasound and x-rays, sometimes for computed tomography. This is necessary to exclude contraindications. In some cases, these techniques can replace cystoscopy, but sometimes they are not enough. Men are sent to the study of the bladder with:
- urinary incontinence;
- stone formation;
- the appearance of pus and blood in the urine;
- pain during urination for an unexplained reason;
- suspicion of a tumor or ulcer;
- chronic pelvic pain;
- urinary tuberculosis.
The patient is conducted a study to clarify the diagnosis, as well as after treatment, to test the effectiveness of therapy. During one course, the patient may be given several planned diagnostics with a cystoscope. This examination is not prescribed if the patient has:
- fever on the background of infections of the genitourinary system;
- acute course of inflammatory processes;
- acute stage of prostatitis and orchitis;
- bleeding from the urethra;
- too low blood clotting;
- severe diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Some contraindications are considered relative, such as fever and acute inflammation. In such cases, these symptoms are first eliminated, and then a cystoscope is diagnosed.
Rules for preparing for the survey
Preparation for cystoscopy depends on how this procedure is performed. This is a method of anesthesia, most commonly using local anesthesia. But in rare cases, can offer general anesthesia. A few days before the procedure, the urologist or diagnostician will prescribe the necessary tests and examinations:
- CT or MRI;
- urine and blood tests;
- consultation of related specialists: therapist, neurologist, diagnostician, etc.
After that, the doctor will tell the patient what kind of anesthesia will be, how the procedure is performed. If they do general anesthesia, food should be abandoned on the evening before and on the day of treatment. Also prohibited drugs that reduce blood clotting. The doctor should be told about all the medicines that have been taken in the last two days. Before the diagnosis itself, the subject empties the bladder. After the procedure, the patient is prohibited to get behind the wheel, so you may need the help of loved ones. Also, when collecting you need not to forget the documents related to the disease: reports from previous studies, the results of tests and analyzes.
Diagnostics is carried out on an outpatient basis, the patient does not need to go to the clinic, after examination and drawing up a conclusion, he is immediately released. The procedure takes place in an office equipped with equipment and a table for inspection. The doctor and the assistant take part in the process. For inspection can use a rigid endoscope or flexible. Flexible technology is easier to carry, but a little less informative. Therefore, the choice of device will depend on the individual characteristics and clinical picture. It is very important that during the course of cystoscopy the patient is calm, as sudden movements or muscle spasms interfere with trocar advancement and may lead to injury. Therefore, sedatives and anesthetics are administered before the process.
The procedure is as follows:
- The patient changes into sterile disposable clothing or a bathrobe. He was taken to the procedural.
- In the office, the doctor first treats the genital area with antiseptic agents. The cystoscope tube is lubricated with glycerin for easy movement through the urethra. If the patient is very anxious, sedatives are administered intravenously.
- Local anesthesia is first introduced into the urethra, this can be done both by the doctor and the anesthesiologist. A lidocaine gel or novocaine is introduced through the external opening of the channel, then a squeezing ring is installed under the head of the penis. In this position, the patient remains for 7-10 minutes. In rare cases, general anesthesia is performed, as a rule, it is necessary for mentally unbalanced patients or children.
- When anesthesia works, the doctor can begin the process. The cystoscope tube is slowly inserted through the urethra. If at some point the patient has panicked or is in pain, the doctor stops the progress of the tube so as not to damage the walls of the organs. Thus, the trocar is carried out to the bladder.
- Through the tube remove the remains of urine, and then fill the bladder with a sterile solution. This is necessary to ensure that the walls of the body are straightened, which will allow for a better look at them. Through the eyepiece or on the monitor, the doctor assesses the condition of the bladder.
- Upon completion of the procedure, the solution is removed from the organ through the same tube. The cystoscope is slowly excreted, at which point the doctor may additionally examine the urethra. In this case, cystoscopy is accompanied by urethroscopy. The external organs are again treated with antiseptics.
Based on the data obtained, the doctor will draw up a report on which they will build treatment tactics. If local anesthesia was applied, the patient can immediately go home. After general anesthesia, the patient remains a few more hours in the ward of the clinic.
In the urinary system, men can have many problems. These include congenital anomalies, mechanical damage to organs, infections, inflammation. All these pathologies are accompanied by unpleasant symptoms: pain, discomfort, psychological stress. Therefore, it is important to correctly diagnose and treat them. At the reception of the urologist cystoscopy is considered one of the most popular methods of examination. Although it is rather difficult to carry and requires the skill of a doctor, it provides comprehensive information about the urinary system. During the study, the doctor can detect:
- inflammatory process in the bladder or urethra;
- stones, ulcers, tumors;
- injuries and hematomas from injuries;
- evaluate the function of the sphincter and other departments;
- infiltration or stricture.
Also during the procedure, the cause of unexplained pain, bleeding and pus is established. Cystoscopy results can refute a previously made diagnosis. Using this diagnostic, the quality of a conservative treatment or operation is assessed. If necessary, on the background of the observation cystoscopy can conduct a medical or take a piece of tissue for analysis. The main result is considered the correct diagnosis and the possibility of accurate treatment.
Complications after the procedure
Patients who only have to undergo an examination, it is interesting whether it is painful to do cystoscopy. This process is unpleasant, especially if a rigid cystoscope is used. But he is quite tolerant that they can confirm the reviews. Unpleasant sensations appear with the introduction and removal of the trocar, the active movements of the doctor tube to examine the body. But anesthetic gel reduces sensitivity, so the procedure can be completely easy. When using a flexible tube, even local anesthesia may not be necessary.
After the end of the diagnosis, the doctor must tell his ward about what complications and sensations are after the study. Viewing cystoscopy rarely leads to negative consequences, but there may be unpleasant feelings after it. Among them are pain during urination and lower abdomen. It is not considered dangerous, such phenomena pass in 1-3 days. But, if the discomfort does not leave longer than three days, you need to consult with your urologist. In any case, the doctor will set the date for the next examination. You need to come to an emergency meeting if:
- there was blood from the urethra;
- difficulty urinating: prolonged delay, frequent urge, incontinence;
- genitals swollen and red;
- fever has come;
- pain appeared during urination;
- pain in the lower back and lower abdomen (although they were not there before).
Such symptoms may indicate infection or damage to the internal organs of the cystoscope. Therefore, at first after the procedure it is very important to monitor your well-being. At occurrence of suspicious symptoms you should not postpone the visit to the doctor, especially if they were not before the examination.
Where to do cystoscopy
Such a survey is carried out in almost every medical institution, in the public and private segment of clinics. When choosing a venue, it is worth knowing that private clinics use modern equipment, cystoscopes are often flexible with a camera. In public clinics and hospitals using samples with an eyepiece, which increases the chance of a wrong diagnosis and useless treatment. If possible, before visiting the doctor, it is better to look for reviews about the clinic and the procedure itself, so as not to be mistaken and mentally prepared. The price of such services in the private segment will be $ 90-150. The cost depends on the status of the institution and the qualifications of the medical staff. In public institutions, this service should be free.
Cystoscopy in men is an instrumental method for diagnosing the bladder. Examination allows you to accurately establish the diagnosis and select the correct treatment. Avoid and be afraid of this diagnosis is not necessary, it is better to go through it as soon as possible to return to normal life without pain and discomfort.