Specialties of doctors


The body of the child in many ways not like an adult and requires special attention. He suffers all diseases in his own way, needs special methods of treatment and methods of prevention. Therefore, in medicine, a separate specialization is devoted to the health of young patients - pediatrics. This science studies the anatomy and physiology of children, the particularities of their diseases, and finds the best methods of therapy. The health of the individual child, each family and the future of entire nations depends on the pediatricians.

The first acquaintance with the pediatrician

A pediatrician is a specialist with a higher medical education and deep knowledge of the physiology of a child’s body. He differs in that among his wards only children. Such a doctor knows the complete anatomy of the child’s body, the stages of its development, possible pathologies.

His specialization includes a range of related skills and knowledge, because he does not deal with one problem, but covers all possible diseases in childhood. Each child is given a personal pediatrician who will monitor its formation from the moment of birth, prevent the development of diseases or treat them. And after 18 years, adolescents go under the care of therapists.

Pediatrics is an extremely important branch of medicine. For a long time, physicians did not share children's doctors and adults, but by the XIX century, scientists had concluded that the formed and the emerging organisms respond differently to diseases. Over time, this area of ​​science separated from others, which allowed it to develop more intensively.

Today, it operates with a broad knowledge of the health care of the child, the causes of diseases, and the possibilities of preventing many problems in development.

The duties of such a doctor include general monitoring of patients to identify possible pathologies and diseases, their elimination. In children up to three years old, even the most innocuous illnesses can give a serious complication, which is quite difficult to eliminate. That is why babies up to a year must visit their doctor’s office at least every month.

Monitoring includes preventive work, which consists of vaccination, recommendations to parents, and routine testing. Also, pediatricians establish the diagnosis, determine the treatment regimen, monitor the course of the disease.

Their competence includes the whole range of diseases in a child. This includes the most common and rare health problems.

There are also diseases that develop in a child’s body and common diseases, among them:

  • diabetes;
  • congenital abnormalities;
  • injuries, burns, frostbite;
  • allergic reactions;
  • hemophilia;
  • nervous system disorders;
  • pathologies of internal organs;
  • hereditary diseases of any nature.

This is just a short list of problems that are addressed to the pediatrician. In fact, he is obliged to diagnose any disease in the baby and monitor the process of recovery. After the initial diagnosis, he writes out a referral to a specialist of a more narrow focus, for example, to a cardiologist, for professional comprehensive care.

How is the reception at the doctor

Such a doctor does not examine individual organs, but the whole organism. At the reception, he examines the skin, hair, checks eyesight and hearing, listens to the heartbeat, measures pressure.

If he has a suspicion of the presence of any disease, he writes out a referral to the necessary specialist and analyzes for a more detailed diagnosis.

Also, the plan of admission sometimes includes inspection of parents, familiarity with their medical history, which allows to determine hereditary diseases. A visit to the clinic may be needed as part of a routine inspection and in case of emergency.

Inspection according to plan

The first acquaintance with a pediatrician sometimes occurs even before the birth of a child. So, a woman registered with an obstetrician-gynecologist can find out who will monitor her baby. As a rule, it is a children's clinic the nearest to the place of residence. It is also possible to choose a doctor and pre-arrange an appointment with him. Then, during the first month after birth, the pediatrician should come to his patient at home. He will examine the newborn, take the necessary tests, recommend preventive measures.

After the first month of a baby’s life, parents should visit the child’s doctor’s office with him for a routine examination. Do it once a month if there are no complications. Here the specialist will be able to make sure that the development is correct and the health of the ward is not in danger. Be sure to weigh the child and measure growth. If there are doubts, the doctor prescribes the necessary diagnosis, and then it establishes ways to fix the problem. Scheduled monthly visits to the clinic occur up to a year. Such systematic observation allows to prevent most diseases in time, to avoid future health complications. After the child reaches one year old, a visit to the doctor’s office is provided once every three months for vaccinations.

Emergency visit

In addition to the planned visits to the doctor, parents can ask for help in other cases. For example, if the baby is sick, injured, or simply with the anxiety of the parents. Moms and dads are divided into those who constantly "on duty" in the clinic with the slightest reason (or without them) and those who rely on luck and personal experience.

Reviews of experts say that it is better to come to the doctor once more than to aggravate the situation with your own hands. An unscheduled examination is necessary in such situations:

  • constant crying;
  • temperature rise;
  • appearance of skin rashes or individual blemishes;
  • stool disorders;
  • inflammation of the mucous membranes;
  • swollen lymph nodes.

Also, consultation with a pediatrician is necessary when any parents doubt about the normal development of their baby. The most common suspicions are disturbances in the nervous system and hearing impairment.

Moms and dads should carefully observe the process of growth of their offspring, pay attention to the activity of the child. Do not be shy, scared or postpone the entry to the pediatrician. The sooner the fears are dispelled, the better for the children themselves and their parents.

Preparing for the first visit

During the first month, the nurse and the district pediatrician will visit their ward at home. This is called patronage and is very convenient for both mom and crumbs themselves. Starting next month, you will have to learn about how the children's clinic, the schedule of pediatricians, what to take with you. The smallest children are always taken on a certain day so that older children do not encounter babies. Such a scheme is needed due to the fact that in the first months of life a child’s immunity is very weak, and one-year-olds and older often suffer from colds, acute respiratory infections, SARS and so on. As a rule, it is one day a week, so prepare better the day before the reception day.

So, for the first visit you need to pre-assemble all the necessary things, in the bag should be:

  • diaper, which is spread on the table for inspection, it is better to take a wide, to fold several times, or additionally oilcloth. It is more practical to take two disposable diapers in case a small "incident" happens;
  • wet wipes;
  • several diapers;
  • set of spare clothes for the baby;
  • a toy;
  • boot covers.

This kit is useful while waiting in line and for the inspection itself. In addition to the bag experienced mothers advise to perform a few more items.

Prepare a list of exciting questions. It should be borne in mind that there will be more than one mom in the queue. The time of admission will be limited and possibly stressful, since we are talking about young mothers with babies. Therefore, it is better to write on the eve of a list of all that I want to ask the doctor.

From the documentation you should definitely bring your passport, a copy of your passport, birth certificate, and insurance policy. Documents should be put in a folder that opens with one hand.

Prepare clothes for the mother, it is better to choose underwear and clothes that are easy to breastfeed. If the baby is on an artificial diet, this item is not so important.

Just before going to the bag, you should add a bottle of water for mom and baby. Also, the "artificiality" must take a mixture or baby food.

In addition, doctors recommend to pay attention to the condition and well-being of the crumbs before going. If he slept poorly, refused to eat, is naughty - you can postpone the trip to the clinic. It is also advised to take care of an assistant during the first visit.

If someone from relatives or relatives can accompany mother with the baby, inspection will pass much easier. It is worth taking care of what the baby will be transferred to. The car seat or a special basket is best for this, the sling is also convenient.

How to choose a pediatric doctor

Considering such an important role of the pediatrician in the life of a baby, many parents would like to choose the best specialist for their children. Unfortunately, in the CIS countries it is rather difficult to do this, since medical institutions operate according to a certain scheme. Each city is divided into areas, which are called plots, and a single pediatrician is assigned to a separate section. This specialist will be engaged in all children who live in the territory assigned to him. Therefore, he is called the district pediatrician. Such a scheme slightly simplifies the work of polyclinics, but makes it difficult to choose.

Today, babies are assigned to a children's clinic based not on the place of registration, but on the place of actual residence.

During discharge from the maternity hospital, all the necessary information is transferred to the medical institution at the place of residence of the patient. However, the choice is still the parents have. If the attached doctor is not suitable for some reason, you can contact a specialist in another clinic. But under the law, he may refuse to observe the child, since additional patients do not bear him direct material remuneration. Also, the work of a pediatrician can be performed by a family doctor and a private pediatrician. What to choose?

District Clinic

Here is the specialist who is assigned to the babies living in his “territory”. Such a doctor has its pros and cons. On the one hand, he got a great experience, saw many diseases and treated them. In the CIS countries, the state necessarily forces such specialists to upgrade their skills. In addition, in the district children's clinic, doctor services are free.

But there are also disadvantages that are visible at the very first reception. The district doctor is often annoyed because of the huge queues, dissatisfied parents, a constant series of children's diseases. For example, in Russia, according to the law, one pediatric physician must keep records of more than 800 children.

Private clinic

In this case, everything is exactly the opposite. You can sign up for any time, no need to wait for the clock in the queue, breastfeeding the baby. The doctor will arrive at the house at the first request, even at night. In this case, the pediatrician becomes, indeed, a personal doctor.

In addition to the queues here you can forget about the pile of documents that you have to take with you. Choosing a private clinic, it is better to give preference to those who provide such services for a long time. Such medical institutions highly value their reputation and pay attention to the qualifications of their staff. Everyone thinks about the disadvantages of such a choice: it is expensive.

Family doctor

This is a very convenient and affordable option. Such a specialist can be both in a public clinic and in a private one. But his services are cheaper than a pediatrician. He can also come to the house on demand, day or night. A family doctor will carry the baby’s card from birth, sometimes taking tests at home. This is a very popular phenomenon in Europe, in America. Today, and we have such a specialist become extremely fashionable. However, he has a drawback: unlike a pediatrician, he has less knowledge in the field of pediatric physiology. In fact, this is not a children's doctor, but his work may well be.

In conclusion

Since such a specialist performs a very important job - preserves the health of children - it is worth choosing him very carefully. If your precinct you do not like, do not hesitate to contact another doctor. At the reception, do not be afraid to ask all your questions, the readiness to answer them determines the quality of the doctor himself. As in other areas of health care, in this case, moms and dads warn about the dangers of self-medication. It is not necessary to "play pediatrician" and invent methods of treatment of the baby, this is definitely not going to help him. Timely qualified assistance will avoid many problems and continue to rejoice in his child.

Article author:
Furmanova Elena Alexandrovna

Specialty: pediatrician, infectious diseases specialist, allergist-immunologist.

Total experience: 7 years.

Education: 2010, SSMU, pediatric, pediatrics.

Experience infectious diseases more than 3 years.

He has a patent on the topic “A method for predicting a high risk of the formation of a chronic pathology of the adeno-tonsillar system in frequently ill children”. As well as the author of publications in the journals of the Higher Attestation Commission.

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