Coxsackie virus refers to enteroviruses that cause infectious diseases in humans. Coxakivirus infection can occur in various clinical options and requires timely diagnosis and adequate therapy.
Coxakivirus infection treatment is the process of selecting and using drugs, without which the body will be extremely difficult to cope with viruses. Representatives of the Coxsackie group of enteroviruses, entering the human body, are localized in different tissues and organs, where they multiply and then spread throughout the body. Pathogens enter the body through the upper respiratory tract or through the mouth. The disease manifests itself in various syndromes and disorders in the work of the heart, liver, upper respiratory tract, brain, skeletal muscles, the peripheral nervous system, changes in the skin and mucous membranes.
The study of this group of viruses gave a general idea of what they are, what symptoms provoke, what consequences can cause.
In the issue of treatment and prevention of evidence-based information is somewhat less. However, timely access to a doctor is almost always a guarantee that the disease will pass quickly and will not cause harm to the general state of health. This is particularly relevant for the reason that there is currently no vaccine against Coxsaciovirus infection, which is why preventive vaccinations are not possible. In addition, outbreaks of the disease have recently become frequent in some resort countries, for example, the summer of 2017 was not very favorable for tourists in Turkey in this regard, and news of the Turkish Koksaki virus has heated up the situation among the population for a long time.
Nevertheless, the disease can be quite successfully dealt with, if it is determined in time and correctly.
Diagnosis of the disease
The overall clinical picture of the disease is very diverse, has many manifestations due to the tropism of the virus to most human tissues and organs. Clinical diagnosis is difficult, therefore, in addition to external manifestations, an important role in the diagnosis is played by test data: general analysis of blood, urine, feces; a blood test for the presence of antibodies; examination of cerebrospinal fluid; PCR analysis to identify the pathogen in the blood, feces or urine, with its subsequent genotyping.
Doctors emphasize that the earlier the diagnosis is made and the correct diagnosis is made, the easier it will be to treat the infection. In this case, the chance that it will be defeated quickly and will not recur is much higher than in other cases.
Sources of virus isolation include patients who have pronounced clinical manifestations of the disease, asymptomatic carriers of the virus. Considering that transmission options are the two most common and easily implemented paths of all possible ways of transmitting infectious disease — airborne and fecal-oral — the probability of being infected is quite high, in children under 10 it is often higher than in adults. Resistant specific immunity after an already transferred disease is not produced, but some antibodies to it remain in the blood for a long time.
In the case of airborne infection, viral particles from the first days of the disease can be found in secretions from the nasopharynx, in the case of nutritional infection, the pathogen is localized in the intestine and begins to multiply there, and during the entire incubation period it can be released into the environment. There is also a transplacental infection - newborns are susceptible to it.
Children under six months usually get sick less often than all, if there was no infection in the womb - this is due to the presence of their maternal immunity. A child from a year to 10 years is at risk. However, the disease affects adults as well, and the level of body resistance is partly affected by susceptibility to infection.
Treatment of infection: general characteristics of the technique
Etiotropic therapy aimed specifically at the causative agents of the Coxsackie virus is currently missing. The course of treatment is usually carried out at home, and aims to eliminate the symptoms of the diseases that the virus causes. Patients with severe forms are subject to mandatory hospitalization.
During the entire period of acute manifestations of infection, the patient needs bed rest. Dietary restrictions are minor - you need to eat in accordance with age needs and personal preferences, eliminating fatty, fried, spicy foods. An additional intake of vitamin-mineral complexes and plentiful drink are shown.
High temperatures must be reduced with antipyretic drugs.
Serous meningitis and meningoencephalitis - indications for emergency hospitalization and infusion therapy. A patient is diagnosed with a lumbar puncture, after which, as a rule, there is relief due to a decrease in tension in the spinal canal. Patients are prescribed detoxification therapy intravenously, drugs are used to maintain brain cells (nootropics), according to indications patients receive cardiovascular drugs, anticoagulants, electrolyte solutions. When conducting massive intravenous therapy, diuresis control is mandatory.
A newborn with severe manifestations injects immunomodulators, GCS, plasma, albumin.
Treatment with antibiotics against the Coxsackie virus is ineffective, however, if a secondary bacterial infection appears in the background of the overall picture of the disease (the occurrence of pneumonia, otitis media and other diseases), they are also prescribed.
How to treat coxsa virus infection in children
In case of detection of suspicious symptoms in a child, complaints of feeling unwell, refusal of food, characteristic rashes around the mouth, on the palms and feet, it is recommended to show the baby to the pediatrician. It is very likely that the treatment will take place at home, but it is better to entrust the determination of the treatment regimen to the doctor.
For a person infected with the virus, bed rest is recommended while symptoms of intoxication are present - high fever, weakness, chills, nausea.
It is necessary to constantly take a warm drink, since the virus is localized mostly in the intestine, and thus it will be gradually washed out. The room where the patient is located must be regularly aired. A sick child constantly releases viruses into the environment, and the intake of fresh air will help reduce the concentration of the infectious agent.
It is important to avoid the occurrence of drafts.
Be sure to pay attention to the diet of the baby - in the period of illness the food should be particularly nutritious and contain the necessary vitamins and minerals. You can enter in the diet of vitamin and mineral complexes. If the child is severely affected by wounds and ulcers in the oral cavity, it should be given warm liquid and semi-liquid food.
The treatment regimen is prescribed in accordance with the clinical picture of the symptoms of the disease:
- high temperatures help to bring down antipyretic drugs;
- in severe cases, when the temperature is not knocked down by tablets and syrups, Dimedrol is injected with analgin and papaverine at a dosage of 0.1 ml per 1 year of life of the child;
- in case of severe intoxication it is necessary to take absorbent drugs;
- if the course of infection has passed into a severe form, immunomodulators and antiviral drugs are prescribed;
- Special antiseptic liquids are suitable for treating the skin (wounds, crusts, ulcers and papules);
- in the presence of severe itching and rash, it is necessary to take antihistamines to prevent the occurrence of bacterial contamination of wounds due to constant scratching;
- oral lesions are effectively treated with special antibacterial and healing rinses.
Treatment regimen for detecting coxsa virus infection in adults
Treatment of infection in adults does not differ fundamentally from the approach used in the treatment of children. For them, bed rest is also recommended, until the first acute signs of intoxication and high temperatures, which need to be reduced with antipyretic drugs, are removed only if the thermometer shows more than 38.5 degrees or with poor temperature tolerance. Ample drinking and nutrition are prescribed, which will facilitate the intake of all the necessary minerals, vitamins and nutrients.
In cases where rash and itching are disturbing, antihistamines can be taken, and the skin elements themselves can be treated with special antiseptics containing anesthetics. In severe disease, severe intoxication, the presence of chronic diseases, hospitalization is sometimes required. In the hospital, intensive infusion therapy is carried out, additional examinations are carried out and the patient is under constant medical supervision.
For example, meningitis and encephalitis are indications for prescription:
- uregitis, mannitol (to reduce swelling of the brain);
- reopoliglukina and glucose (anti-intoxication therapy);
- trentala and pyrocetam (help improve cerebral circulation);
- multivitamin complexes.
All these drugs are administered strictly under the supervision of doctors in a hospital.
Drugs prescribed to combat the virus
The most basic areas of treatment for Coxsackie are those that help to deal with the main symptoms: rash, itching, fever and, in fact, viral activity. These drugs are antihistamines, local antiseptics and antiviral agents.
Purpose of antihistamine drugs against itching and inflammation of the skin
Typically, these drugs are prescribed to children, as adults are less likely to worry about itching, moreover, it is still easier for an adult to pull himself together and endure the inconvenience than a child. Combing wounds can lead to the adherence of bacterial flora and local inflammation.
To relieve itching apply:
- Loratadin: has a pronounced antihistamine and antipruritic effect, helps to relieve puffiness.
- Tavegil: the active substance - clemastine hydrofumarad, a blocker of histamine H-1 receptors, helps relieve itching, reduces allergic reactions, has a sedative effect, inhibits the formation of edema, children under 6 years of age are not recommended.
- Suprastin: antiallergic, reduces the development of allergies and itching, has an antiemetic effect, is allowed for children from 1 month.
- Erius: the active ingredient is desloratadine, does not cause a sedative effect, has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory action.
Local antiseptics for the treatment of skin defects and wounds
In the event that the body is infected with the Coxsackie virus, wounds and papules that appear on the skin and mucous membranes are, in fact, “reservoirs” that also contain infection, so it makes sense to deal with it directly, by treating wounds with special means. For these purposes, doctors recommend:
- Miramistin: a solution with pronounced anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, reduces itching on the affected skin.
- Octenisept, Stomatidin, Hexoral: can be used for treating skin and mucous membranes in children, used for rinsing, promote healing of wounds.
- Furacilin: a substance used for rinsing the mouth and lubricating the skin.
- Iodine, “green”, Fukartsin.
- Broth oak bark: has a healing effect and a slight antiseptic effect due to the content of tannins.
- Lollipops for sore throat: resorption helps relieve pain, heal wounds.
In the case when the first signs of relief from the patient do not occur within 2-4 days, doctors recommend introducing into the treatment regimen immunomodulators and antiviral agents:
- Amiksin: the drug has a wide spectrum of action, the active substance stimulates the formation of all types of interferons in the body.
- Gamma-globulin: prescribed for children with weakened immunity, in case of severe infection, as well as for prevention in case of contact with an infected person.
- Ribonuclease: contributes to the partial destruction of the virus RNA.
- Viferon, Immunoflazid, Arbidol: active immunomodulators, effective from the first day of infection.
Some doctors prescribe antiviral therapy Acyclovir, however, this drug acts on herpes viruses, and against Coxsackie's enterovirus is ineffective.
Possible consequences of the disease
Enteroviruses Koksaki insidious, not only because they are easily confused with a dozen other pathogens and infections due to the similarity of symptoms. The danger also lies in the fact that the outcome of the disease can be different, including the appearance of complications:
- serous and aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis - inflammation of brain cells and meninges with sensitivity disorder and muscle rigidity, swelling of the face, may be accompanied by vomiting and cramps, headaches, impairment of consciousness;
- in babies - sore throats with an increase in cervical lymph nodes;
- hepatitis, accompanied by an increase in liver and pain in the right side;
- inflammation of the heart muscle, heart bag, inner lining of the heart (myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis);
- hemorrhagic conjunctivitis.
How the body can carry infection
Usually, if you seek medical advice in a timely manner, the most likely outcome will be a positive outcome. If the infection is easily tolerated, after 2-3 days an adult will feel significant relief and will be able to return to normal life, but with some limitations. For example, at first, sparing labor is recommended, as well as the rejection of active physical exertion. Some severe forms of infection, such as encephalitis, require up to 6–8 weeks to recover.
Children may need up to 2 weeks to completely overcome the mild forms of the disease and restore the body's resources. In the event of a serious defeat by the virus, the recovery process will be delayed up to several months.
As a result of the disease, a person can be completely cured of the virus, or remain a virus carrier if the virus particles are not completely destroyed in the cells and organs.
Prevention and rehabilitation measures to combat the virus
No specific measures for the prevention of infection have been developed. During epidemics, the degree of infection is high, especially among children, since the infection literally “sticks” to children and adults. Re-infection is not excluded, however, in this case, the disease is easier.
Compliance with hygiene standards - the main direction of preventive measures. It is necessary to teach children and themselves to follow the rules of cleanliness, wash their hands before eating, eat only thoroughly washed fruits and vegetables.
Contact with ill people is prohibited.This is especially true for children who attend kindergartens and schools, because, as you know, one infected child in a group or class is enough to get more than half of the team sick in a couple of days.
Light forms of diseases caused by the Coxsackie virus do not require rehabilitation measures and activities. Rehabilitation may be necessary only after severe forms: serous meningitis or meningoencephalitis.
In the recovery period, you need a high-calorie diet to return the body's spent energy reserves. A sparing mode of work and rest is established until the rehabilitation processes are fully completed. For six months after the illness, active physical exercise and training are prohibited, children should not attend physical education classes. Also at this time, vaccination is prohibited.
Doctors prescribe multivitamin courses for at least 3 months.
The Coxsackie virus has recently become more active in the countries of Eastern Europe, as well as in resort countries - in Cyprus, in Turkey. There is an increase in the incidence in children, as well as an increase in cases of re-infection.
Methods of treatment completely depend on which organs hit the virus. In some cases, mandatory hospitalization is indicated, but most often it is enough to call a doctor at home, adhere to bed rest and drinking regimen, or eliminate symptoms. To alleviate the patient's condition, antihistamine, febrifugal, absorbent drugs, disinfectants and healing solutions with a tanning effect, as well as drugs that restore the water-salt and mineral balance of the body are used.
In severe cases of the disease, intensive care is shown in the hospital.
Timely recourse to specialists guarantees in most cases a speedy recovery and a return to the normal rhythm of life.
Specialty: infectious diseases specialist, gastroenterologist, pulmonologist.
Total experience: 35 years.
Education: 1975-1982, 1MMI, San gig, high qualification, infectious diseases doctor.
Science degree: doctor of the highest category, PhD.
- Infectious diseases.
- Parasitic diseases.
- Emergency conditions.