Carp is an unpretentious freshwater fish, bred by selection from carp. It is found in almost all "quiet" bodies of water in the basins of the Baltic, Azov, and Black Seas. In the presence of a food base, the fish lives up to 35 years, reaching 75-100 cm in length. At the same time, the weight of one large adult varies from 15 to 20 kg.
Carp meat has a delicate structure and a sweetish taste, which is why it is actively used in cooking. Despite the large number of bones, it is suitable for cooking fish soup, meatballs, aspic, side dishes and canned food. In addition, carp fillets are an excellent source of easily digestible protein, unsaturated fatty acids, micro and macro elements. Interestingly, in terms of nutritional value, this product competes with salmon, trout and chicken.
Due to its rich ingredient composition, carp has a healing effect on the body. Namely: it normalizes energy metabolism in cells, neutralizes oxidative stress, stimulates hormone synthesis, reduces myocardial excitability, improves nitrogen metabolism, and enhances blood circulation.
The body of the carp is large and elongated, covered with dense scales of yellow-golden color. Depending on the habitat, the color of the body varies from light gray to dark brown. A characteristic feature of carp are large fleshy lips, on which are 2 pairs of functional whiskers. The dorsal fin of the fish is equipped with a strong jagged front beam and occupies almost the entire back half of the ridge. Given that carps lend themselves well to crossbreeding, they are of particular interest to breeders. Currently, more than 1,500 species of this fish have been bred.
Most popular varieties:
- Scaly (ordinary). The most unpretentious species, the record holder in terms of growth rate among all cyprinids. Scaly carp lives both in the cold reservoirs of Siberia, and in the warm rivers of Europe, Asia and Southern Russia. It can be found in deep sections and ponds with stagnant water. Scaly carp are characterized by a high thickened back, continuous light scales and branched fins.
- Mirror (royal). A distinctive feature of the fish is its overly large silver scales scattered throughout the body with "islands." Mirror carp has the least rays on the fins among the circle of its relatives, demanding on feeding conditions. From food prefers shellfish and cereals. With good care, it gains mass very quickly. It lives, as a rule, in shallow water, because aerated water is vital for growth and development.
- Naked (leathery). Representatives of this species completely lack scales. Naked carp is very demanding on living conditions and is slowly gaining weight. This is a whimsical representative of the carp family, which does not survive after a cold long season (due to the low oxygen saturation of the water).
The only difference between a leathery carp and a mirror or common carp is a characteristic greenish (swamp) hue.
- Koi. A decorative species of carp bred by Japanese breeders. For koi, a characteristic bright color: red, blue, yellow, orange. This fish is designed to decorate home aquariums, ponds, pools and ponds.
Despite the visual differences, all carps have approximately the same parameters and lifespan. The length of the average fish varies between 20-40 cm, and the weight is 8-9 kg. At the same time, young individuals can be recognized by a small "hump" on the back, and adults - by the cylindrical body.
Carps prefer well-heated reservoirs with a silty bottom and dense vegetation. Interestingly, in one season (from March to October), an individual gains 400-500 g of weight. In favorable conditions, males reach puberty already in the 2nd year of life, and females in the 3rd. Carp is one of the most prolific fish. For one litter, the female can sweep more than a million eggs.
Carp meat is a low-calorie diet, 100 g of which contains 112 kcal. Protein and lipid structures occupy most of the fish’s ingredient composition.
|Name||Content in 100 g of fish fillet, g|
|Name||The concentration of nutrients in 100 g of fish, ml|
|Ascorbic acid (C)||1,5|
|Alpha Tocopherol (E)||0,5|
|Pantothenic Acid (B5)||0,2|
|Beta Carotene (A)||0,02|
|Folic Acid (B9)||0,009|
|Name||The amount of protein in 100 g of product, g|
Given that 100 g of carp fillet contains 0.55 g of cholesterol, it is extremely undesirable to abuse fish in case of impaired lipid metabolism.
Carp meat is a source of easily digestible protein, which competes with chicken, beef and salmon in the amount of essential amino acids. Due to its rich ingredient composition, fish has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and atherosclerotic effects on the body.
- It enhances blood circulation in the brain, stimulates DNA synthesis, normalizes energy metabolism in tissues, and is involved in the formation of myelin sheaths of neurons.
- Accelerates the elimination of toxins and toxins, activates the digestive tract, improves nitrogen metabolism.
- Strengthens the walls of blood vessels, normalizes blood pressure.
- It accelerates wound healing, prolongs the life of cells, stimulates its own immunity.
- Helps reduce blood sugar, prevents the occurrence of hypoxia.
- It has an antiviral effect, neutralizes oxidative stress.
- Strengthens the heart muscle, reduces myocardial excitability.
- Participates in the metabolism of fats, stimulates the synthesis of enzymes and hormones, strengthens bone tissue.
- Improves the functional state of cartilage, hair, skin, nails.
- It suppresses inflammatory reactions, lowers cholesterol, prevents blood vessel blockage.
However, despite its usefulness, carp is contraindicated in people suffering from bronchial asthma and allergies to seafood. In addition, fish grown under artificial conditions and containing dyes, antibiotics, growth accelerators, poses a danger to human health, in particular for pregnant and lactating women, children and the elderly.
Carp goes on sale chilled, frozen and fresh. For culinary purposes, it is better to use a freshly caught carcass. Carp is suitable for any type of food processing: frying, boiling, baking, stewing, salting. Despite the large number of bones, fish are used to make fish soup, side dishes, canned food, aspic, cutlets. However, it is better not to use the product without heat treatment (for example, as a part of sushi), since dangerous parasites are often present in freshwater meat.
Fresh carp selection criteria
- Smell. Recently caught fish has an unobtrusive fresh aroma. If a strong specific smell emanates from the carp, the product is spoiled.
- Eyes. Young fresh carp have transparent and convex eyelids with traces of water. Muddy, dried eyes are a clear sign that the fish is not “visiting” on the counter for several days.
- Gills. The breathing apparatus of a freshly caught carp is painted in hot pink or scarlet. Blue, green or dark red gills indicate spoilage of the product.
- Veils. Fresh fish have wet scales and whole skin. If there are bloody patches on her body, sticky muddy mucus or unnatural spotting, it is better to refuse to buy the goods.
- The structure of meat. Despite the delicate fish flesh, the quality carp fillet is elastic to the touch. When pressed on it, the shape is quickly restored, and the recesses do not remain.
When buying frozen fish, it is important to pay attention to the glaze. With a one-time cooling of the product, the ice is solid without defects, and with repeated cooling it is bumpy with many cracks. With dry freezing, glaze should be absent altogether.
The maximum storage period for fresh fish is 3 days (at a temperature of 0 to 5 degrees), frozen carcass - 3 months.
The subtleties of cooking carp
- To dissolve small bones, the fish is soaked in a weak solution of vinegar (5 ml of essence in 2 liters of water) or lemon juice before cooking.
- If the gall bladder is damaged during carcass cutting, the place where bitterness has got must be removed or rubbed with salt.
- Before boiling, the fish is cut into portions, and then placed in boiling salted water with the addition of bay leaf.
- To eliminate the specific “swamp” odor, carp are pre-soaked in milk with salt and pepper for 20 minutes. After that, the carcass is sprayed with lemon juice and white wine.
- When baking fish entirely on its surface, many shallow cuts are made (crosswise). This procedure helps to reduce the number of small bones in the carcass, speeds up the cooking process.
To get a crispy crust, spacers (for example, toothpicks) are inserted into the abdomen of the carp.
- For the preparation of fish soup, it is better to use a young carp caught in a clean pond. If you take the old thawed fish, the soup will be muddy and smell like mud.
- The best method for removing mucus from a fresh carcass is rubbing it with salt, followed by washing under running water.
- For breading, it is better to use wheat flour, as crackers drown out its taste.
The best methods for preparing carp are cooking and baking. It is better to refuse salting and dried fish, since the parasites that live in it do not always die with the cold method of processing raw materials.
What products is combined with carp:
- garlic, onions, sweet greens;
- aromatic seasonings (bay leaf, sage, thyme, basil, pepper);
- fatty oils (olive, cream, sunflower, camelina);
- mushrooms, anchovies, olives;
- sour cream, mayonnaise, mustard, ketchup, soy sauce;
- tomatoes, potatoes, carrots.
In addition, baked carp is an excellent appetizer for white dry wine and lemon liquor.
Where is it better to "trap" carp
In the spring season, it is worth looking for fish in well-heated sections of water bodies with a depth of 0.7 to 1.5 m. If such a zone is located near the shore, you must be located at least 3 m from it. In addition, flooded river beds, a pond overgrown with algae and ponds fenced with dams are also favorite fish habitats.
What bait is better to catch carps
For boilies. This nozzle firmly "sits" on the hook, cuts off the bites of small fish, allows the use of flavorings. Along with this, you can use homemade baits. One of the best foods for carp is corn and pearl barley porridge, where maple, honey or strawberry syrup is added. Moreover, per 1 kg of cereal should be no more than 10 ml of flavoring.
Without what gears it is impossible to catch carps
Considering that hooked fish can make a sharp jerk and get away from the shore, strong carp rods with a thick leash are required to hold it. The optimal length of the fishing line is 3-4 meters.
When is it better to use Pop-ups
Floating gear is effective in familiar ponds without the need for top dressing.
For the winter season, the Tutti Frutti Richworth nozzle (14 mm) is suitable, from which flavors are released even in cold water.
In the warm season, “Solar Perfect Pop-ups” can be used as a floating bait, and “Solar Club Mix” can be used as a bottom bait.
How to determine the shape and type of sinker
When choosing gear you need to consider the fishing method and texture of the bottom. So, on a steep pebble dump, it is advisable to use a small flat load, and near the shore and when calculating self-notching - a heavy overall plumb. Its mass directly depends on the desired casting distance. Well-proven gear with "lateral" load securing, which have clips like "Kevin Nash" (for semi-rigid fixation).
How to distinguish carp from crucian carp
Often, even experienced anglers can not immediately determine which fish was caught from the pond. This is not surprising, because freshwater residents have visual similarities, a common habitat and similar bites.
Characteristic differences of fish:
- In carp, unlike crucian carp, the head is more massive and embossed with a large moving mouth. In addition, he has a slight bend on his nose. In this case, the crucian contours are smooth.
- A characteristic feature of carps is the functional whiskers that appear in young individuals already in the first year of life. In crucians, tactile hairs are absent.
- Fish can also be recognized by the contour of the dorsal fin. In carp it is longer, equipped with a protruding front beam, followed by a kind of "recess". In crucian carp, the fin contour is even, slightly rounded from above.
- The body of carps is elongated, thickened and flexible along its entire length. If you pick up a fish, you can easily give it an S-shape. His "fellow" torso is more dense and compressed laterally (due to a high back).
- In carp, the pharyngeal teeth are massive, located 5 pieces above and below the mouth. Single-row jaws (four incisors on the left and on the right) are typical for crucian carp.
Remember, the carp actively shakes its head when fishing, trying to free itself from the annoying hook. The first sharp jerk, he, in 50% of cases, tears off a strong fishing line. For crucians, this behavior is not typical, they resist only the first few seconds.
Carp is an omnivorous unpretentious fish, a domesticated form of carp. Representatives of this family prefer reservoirs with a calm course and deep places, overgrown with water lilies, reeds, rdest and cattail. The fish leads a flocking life, without making distant migrations. In the fall, she leaves for deep-sea pits, where in a sedentary state she spends the winter season. Carp is caught on powerful rods with a thick leash and strong fishing line.
Freshwater inhabitants are bred for the sake of obtaining delicious dietary meat, which contains a wide range of biologically active structures (proteins, fats, vitamins, amino acids, micro and macro elements). Carp meat is suitable for almost all types of food processing: frying, baking, steaming, boiling, processing for minced meat. However, it is better not to use the product for salting and drying, since helminthic infestations are often present in the body of river inhabitants.
Due to its rich ingredient composition, fish has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic and anti-sclerotic effects on the body. With regular consumption of the product (150-200 g 3 times a week), the energy exchange in the tissues normalizes, the functional state of the skin improves, the synthesis of hormones is accelerated, the walls of the vessels are strengthened, the viscosity of the blood decreases, and myocardial excitability decreases.