Chlorine is the most important macro-element of water-salt metabolism in the human body.
In healthy people, the compound is found in almost all cells of the body, however, the highest concentration is concentrated in the skin, intercellular fluid, bone tissue, blood and lymph. In addition to regulating the acid - base balance, chlorine is involved in maintaining the osmotic balance within each cell.
This element is an effective antiseptic used to purify water from pathogens of infectious diseases: cholera, hepatitis, typhoid fever. With prolonged sedimentation (8 - 10 hours) or boiling, chlorine evaporates.
Physical and chemical properties
Chlorine is a chemical element of the main subgroup of group VII of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev, with atomic number 17. The compound was first isolated in pure form in 1774 by the German chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele in Sweden. This element is a chemically active non-metal that is part of the halogen group. Elementary chlorine under normal conditions (0 degrees) is a poisonous gas of yellow - green color with a sharp "asphyxiating" smell, which is 3 times heavier than air.
The compound reacts with almost all chemical elements, forming chlorides (except nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, inert gases). When dissolved in alkalis or water, it dismutes, passing into hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids.
In nature, chlorine is found only in the composition of mineral compounds: sylvin KCl, halite NaCl, sylvinite KCl · NaCl, carnallite KCl · MgCl2 · 6H2O, bischofite MgCl2 · 6H2O, kainite KCl · MgSO4 · 3Н2О. At the same time, its main reserves are concentrated in the salts of sea and ocean waters, the content of which starts from 19 grams per liter.
In a healthy adult body, with a body weight of 80 kilograms, at least 95 grams of chlorine is present.
The primary "task" of chlorine is to maintain a constant osmotic pressure in the blood, lymph, and intracellular fluids, which potentiates the elimination of excess waste substances from the body and the distribution of beneficial compounds in tissues, cells, and blood vessels.
Other properties of the macronutrient:
- participates in the mechanisms of transport of substances into cells;
- improves digestion, due to the presence in the gastric juice;
- "responsible" for the full functioning of the brain, including the transmission of nerve impulses;
- potentiates the breakdown of fats;
- regulates acid - base balance in the body;
- prevents the appearance of puffiness;
- normalizes blood pressure;
- activates amylase;
- improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system;
- protects the body from dehydration;
- maintains a normal pH level of cells;
- supports the viability of red blood cells;
- potentiates the removal of carbon dioxide, toxins, toxins from cells and tissues;
- improves the functional state of the liver;
- helps joint tissue remain flexible and resilient.
Biochemical reactions in the human body, in which sodium and potassium ions are involved, occur only in the presence of chlorine.
For healthy people, the daily need for chlorine is 4,000 to 6,000 milligrams.
With a balanced diet, the connection in the required amount comes with food. To date, the upper permissible limit of chlorine consumption has not been established, but the minimum dosage is at least 800 milligrams per day.
For children, the daily need for chlorides varies from 300 to 2300 milligrams, depending on the age of the child.
The daily dosage of the macronutrient is:
- for infants up to 3 months - 300 milligrams;
- for infants 4 to 6 months - 450 milligrams;
- for babies up to a year - 550 milligrams;
- for children from 1 to 3 years old - 800 milligrams;
- for preschoolers (5 - 7 years old) - 1100 milligrams;
- for students from 7 to 11 years old - 1700 milligrams;
- for adolescents under 14 years old - 1900 milligrams;
- for boys from 14 to 17 years - 2300 milligrams.
The need for chlorine increases with hot weather, intense sports, increased water consumption, and excessive sweating.
Deficiency and excess of chlorine in the body
Given that products prepared for future use contain salt, and tap water is cleaned with chlorine, a lack of chloride in a healthy body is a rare occurrence. However, often a macroelement deficiency occurs against the background of pathological dysfunction of the internal organs.
Causes of chlorine deficiency in the body:
- prolonged maintenance of salt-free diets, fasting;
- increased sweating:
- conditions accompanied by dehydration (vomiting, frequent urination);
- abuse of laxatives, corticosteroids and diuretics;
- artificial feeding of babies;
- violation of the adrenal glands;
- digestive tract inflammation (perforated ulcers of the duodenum and stomach, peritonitis);
- pathologies associated with an increase in the concentration of intercellular substance;
- andrenocortical insufficiency.
These factors, in 80% of cases, provoke destabilization of acid - base balance, which entails a violation of metabolic processes in the body.
Symptoms of hypochloremia:
- drowsiness, lethargy;
- muscle weakness;
- hair loss;
- slowing of mental abilities;
- teeth crumbling;
- lowering blood pressure;
- loss of appetite, weight;
- nausea, vomiting;
- increase in residual nitrogen concentration in the blood;
- dry mouth
- "memory losses;
- urination disorders.
A sharp decrease in chlorine in the blood against the background of acute hypochloremia is fraught with the development of a serious condition up to a coma or death.
An excess of chlorine, in 80% of cases, occurs in people working in the pharmaceutical, chemical, pulp and paper and textile industries. Remember, inhaling concentrated chlorine vapors has a detrimental effect on the human body due to inhibition of the respiratory center and burning of the "bronchial trunk".
In everyday life, an overdose of a macronutrient is almost impossible, since 90-95% of the substance is excreted in the urine, 4-8% with feces, 1-2% with sweat.
Consider what factors provoke hyperchloremia (excessive increase in the concentration of chlorine in the blood).
- Acute renal failure.
- Diabetes insipidus.
- Prolonged diarrhea.
- Salicylate poisoning.
- Renal tubule acidosis.
- Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex.
- Damage to the hypothalamus.
- Abuse of androgens, corticosteroids, estrogens, thiazides.
In addition, the disinfection of drinking water with chlorine leads to the formation of carcinogenic compounds (chloroform, chlorphenol, chlorides) in it, which provoke the development of respiratory diseases, gastritis, pneumonia.
Signs of hyperchloremia:
- acrid dry cough;
- chest pain
- pain in the eyes;
- dyspeptic disorders;
- Strong headache;
- dry mouth
- heaviness in the stomach;
- nausea, heartburn.
If hyperchloremia is not stopped for a long time, water accumulates in tissues and organs, which leads to a persistent increase in blood pressure. In severe cases, an excess of matter in the body is accompanied by a rise in body temperature and toxic pulmonary edema. Reduce the amount of salt consumed, as well as control the quality of drinking water, will help stabilize the water-salt balance.
For dechlorination of the liquid, it is advisable to use multi-level cleaning mechanisms, carbon filters, boil or stand for 6 to 8 hours.
Sources of chlorine
In addition to chlorinated water, sodium chloride or common table salt is a natural storehouse of a macrocell. With this product, up to 90% of the daily rate of the compound enters the human body. In addition, it is present in seafood, cereals, animal proteins, vegetables, fruits and herbs.
|Product name||Chlorine content in 100 grams of product, milligrams|
|Cooking salt||59 000|
|Fish (hake, capelin, pollock, saury, herring)||170|
|Cow's milk (whole) 3 - 4%||115|
|Kefir (homemade) 3 - 4%||110|
Interestingly, adding a pinch of salt to the finished dish increases the concentration of chlorine in food by 3-5 times.
Chlorine is the most important biogenic element for the human body, which is part of almost all skin cells, blood and bone tissue.
This substance is involved in the formation of gastric juice, stimulation of enzymes, and the formation of blood plasma. The compound plays a key role in maintaining the acid - base and osmotic balance in lymph, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Along with this, chlorides potentiate the deposition of glycogen in the tissues of the liver, as a result of which the energy potential of the body increases, especially during physical exertion.
An imbalance of chlorine in the body, in 80% of cases, is accompanied by a deterioration in overall well-being and the appearance of secondary complications associated with neuromuscular disorders or heart failure.
The highest chlorine content in ordinary table salt, which is why hypochloremia in humans is a rare occurrence.